Lugo is a city in the Galicia region of Spain, and it is the only city in the world to be surrounded by completely intact Roman walls. Dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, these walls reach a height of 10 to 15 meters along a 2,117-meter circuit. The walls contain 85 external towers, 10 gates, four staircases, and two ramps. Each tower also contained access stairs to the walkway along the walls. Despite the renovation work conducted over the centuries, the walls still conserve their original structure and look today.
The Roman walls of Lugo are the most complete and finest example of Late Roman military architecture in Western Europe.
According to the legend. the purpose of the walls was to protect “Augustus’ Holy Forest” rather than a city. This mysterious forest, Lucus Augusti in Latin, is also where the city Lugo takes its name. Although there is no trace of the forest today, more than half of its towers and other defensive structures remain intact. The use of local materials such as slate, granite, and re-used stones also gives the structure an original appearance.