Pitigliano is one of the three tuff towns in southern Tuscany, the other two being Sovano and Sorano. This medieval hill town’s history goes back to the 6th century BC. Although there are remains from the prehistoric life on the site, the oldest structures date from the Etruscan period. These remains include carved channels into tuff, necropolis ruins, and the remains of a temple. However, the oldest written record of the town dates back to 1061. The town became the capital of the surrounding county during the 13th century when the Aldobrandeschi family ruled the place.
Towards the end of the 13th century, the Orsini family took over the town which was followed by 150 years of intermittent wars with Siena. In 1455, Siena finally recognized Pitigliano as a county under Siena’s sovereignty. Today, most of the structures in the town date from the Medieval and Renaissance periods. These include the town walls, the Orsini Fortress, the Santi Pietro e Paolo Cathedral, the Medici aqueduct, and the Church of Santa Maria. The town is also known as Little Jerusalem due to the presence of a Jewish community and the town’s own synagogue.