Temple of Khnum in Esna, Egypt
The Temple of Khnum is a highly old structure dating back to the 2nd century BC. It takes its name from the the ram-headed creator god who formed the humankind on his potter’s wheel. As for the pillars of the temple, they are covered with hieroglyphic narrations of the temple rituals.
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey
Hagia Sophia has 140 monolithic colums that come from different parts of the world. Eight of them are made of porphyry which was highly valuable at the time and brought from Egypt. This marble had great importance in the Byzantine Empire because its purple color symbolized the empire’s nobility. As for the capitals, there are palm tree and acanthus leaves as well as the monograms of Emperor Justinian on them.
St. Peter’s Church in Mainz, Germany
The curved devorative ornamentations and the usage of pastel colors in the columns of St Peter’s Church are some of the characteristics of Rococo style in architecture.
The Columns of Bernini’s Baldachin at St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City
A baldachin is a ceremonial canopy put over an altar, or a throne. Bernini’s bronze baldachin has a Baroque style, and its columns are a fine example of the Solomonic Column (distinguished by its twisted shaft).
Erectheum in Athens, Greece
As one can see in the East façade, the columns of Erechteum are in the Ionic order. An Ionic pillar is best distinguished by the scroll- shaped volutes on its capital.